The Loved Ones
Late in Robert May’s documentary Kids for Cash, you see a broadcast video of former judge Mark A. Ciavarella as he emerges from the courthouse in Scranton, Pennsylvania, to face a scrum of reporters and camera operators after his February 2011 conviction on twelve of thirty-nine counts of racketeering, bribery and extortion. According to federal prosecutors, he had used his power as the juvenile court judge of neighboring Luzerne County to funnel thousands of children into for-profit prisons in exchange for kickbacks from the operators. As Ciavarella stands in grim silence beside his lawyer, who is making the obligatory futile effort to portray disgrace as exoneration, a slim blond woman named Sandy Fonzo, the mother of one of the wronged children, sweeps around the right flank of the press corps and comes bearing down on Ciavarella, cursing him for having destroyed her son’s life. Had you read about the case in the newspapers, you might have seen that incident frozen as a front-page photograph: the gray, bespectacled, plump-cheeked Ciavarella in the foreground, gazing down at the microphones he won’t use, with Fonzo raging behind his shoulder.
If Kids for Cash were a standard exposé, as it appears to be at first, you might spend an hour and a half with it and never get much deeper than that image of anguished wrath at the back of wrongful authority. But Kids for Cash does not let you off so easily, to turn the page and skim the next outrage. In effect, it takes you inside the front-page photo.
You meet Sandy Fonzo, listen to her stories, watch her home movies and go with her to visit the grave of her son, Ed Kenzakoski. Remarkably, you also visit with Mark Ciavarella in his house, see him with his family, and hear him account for his actions with a mixture of sorrow, bafflement and mounting distress. The picture grows more dense with the testimonies of four survivors of Ciavarella’s courtroom—young adults now, but barely teenagers when they were hauled into a perfunctory, lawyerless trial—who spent years in Pennsylvania juvenile prisons for offenses such as getting into a schoolyard fight, shouting curses at a bus stop and mocking a teacher on MySpace. As these details accumulate, May gradually makes the case that the front-page photo is incomplete. Although Ciavarella was guilty of financial improprieties—and admitted as much—he might have been telling the truth when he insisted that he had not railroaded kids for cash.
He just railroaded kids, and thought it was the right thing to do. According to some of May’s witnesses—the reporter for the Wilkes-Barre Times Leader who covered the story, and the former head of the Luzerne County public defender’s office—Ciavarella had come onto the bench vowing to maintain a zero-tolerance policy for youthful misbehavior and had kept his promise, starting well before the profit-making prisons were built. In the climate of fear that took hold after the Columbine massacre, and in a culture that promoted individual responsibility as the sole cure for all social ills, Ciavarella had won praise and popularity for jailing virtually every child brought before his bench. Never mind that children by nature cannot consistently live up to adult standards of responsibility, as Marsha Levick and Robert Schwartz of Philadelphia’s Juvenile Law Center argue. The public was clamoring for stringency, the schools were happy to dump their troublemakers, and officials across the country were sending more and more children to prison, as if life behind bars would make kids wiser, more amiable and better prepared to do the work of the world—a notion worthy of the man in Swift’s A Tale of a Tub who is shocked to discover that flogging does little to improve a woman’s appearance. Ciavarella himself held firmly to the punitive faith, believing he was helping the kids. This is a man who proudly recalls, when speaking to May’s camera, that his father once turned him away from the path of delinquency by knocking him unconscious.
Kids for Cash is the first film directed by May, who until now has done admirable work as a producer for the likes of Errol Morris and Steve James. Despite the clarity of exposition that he brings to the job, and his caginess in building up and then undermining the received image of Ciavarella, the result is not an especially artful documentary; but it may be something equally valuable. It’s an honest investigation—unprejudiced toward its subjects, thorough in its research, comprehensive in its intellectual framework—and it’s a tragedy.
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You come to a moment in Gloria, an unaffectedly sad and charming tale by the Chilean director Sebastián Lelio, when the title character asks for a public reading of the love letter her grown daughter recently received. The message arrived by e-mail, and so, after an initial demurral, the daughter gets out her smartphone. When she brings it close to read, her face literally lights up with the words.
Modest, natural and yet keyed up just a little beyond the everyday, this passing effect illuminates something lovely in the young woman but is even better for the reflected light it casts on Gloria, who glows with happiness for her daughter but has no desire to live through her. At 50, more or less, Gloria still wants a sex life of her own, preferably with somebody sympathetic who likes to go out on the town, and she will not let divorce, a few wrinkles or a blandly respectable job hold her back.
Played by Paulina García with the grace of a woman who makes light of her own wounds and is oblivious to her own courage, Gloria wraps herself most evenings in a layer or two of something tasteful but sparkly, transforms her lips into a masterpiece of hard-edged monochrome painting, and sallies unaccompanied into one or another of the discos for the post-40 set, which apparently are a common resource in Santiago. If no one asks her to dance, she will venture onto the floor by herself. With her squarishly handsome features, helmet of brown hair and enormous eyeglasses, she looks a bit like Dustin Hoffman in Tootsie, which I do not mean as an insult. There is more humor than desperation in Gloria’s outgoing manner, more prideful display than anxious disguise in the way she likes to play dress-up. When she takes up with a comfortably rumpled older man (Sergio Hernández) whom she’s met in a disco—someone who has so many newly discovered feelings that he stammers in getting them out—you want to believe that Gloria has at last met someone who is her equal in benevolence and candor. I don’t think I’m giving anything away when I say that if he were, there wouldn’t be much of a movie.
Lelio in fact has plenty to work with in Gloria, in theme as well as plot. He simply prefers for you to encounter the bigger matters in small, everyday moments, as Gloria herself does, hearing about present-day social discontent through the complaints of friends exchanged over a meal, for example, or feeling a momentary chill from the Pinochet era when her new lover explains fuzzily that he was never in the military, just the navy. You are in the world of the short story rather than the novel: a place where the telling details are as close to hand as a jar of cold cream or the world’s ugliest stray cat, and the wisdom that encourages Gloria to keep living comes to her lips readily, in the words of the pop songs she loves to sing along with.
A feel-good movie that you don’t have to feel bad for liking, Gloria suggests that those songs might address the biggest matter of all: what you should do when you’ve lost your youth, your illusions, your proximity to your children, some of your late hopes and even a cat you hadn’t wanted in the first place. The answer—you should dance—wouldn’t sound very persuasive stated baldly; but articulated in the flesh and blood of the radiantly middle-aged Paulina García, it becomes a truth beyond argument.
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