Everyone knows the story of Henry Ford more than doubling his production line workers’ pay to $5 a day in January 1914. Ford explained to aghast fellow capitalists that he would be creating customers for his cheap cars, building a new American middle class.
Nearly a century later, in 2005, Walmart CEO Lee Scott called on Congress to raise the minimum wage, since “our customers simply don’t have the money to buy basic necessities between pay checks.” Walmart haters whacked away at Scott for hypocrisy, but he was being perfectly reasonable in identifying what was then and is now America’s number-one problem: a huge chunk of the population barely survives on starvation wages. If you adjust for inflation, median personal income hasn’t moved for almost half a century. Nearly a quarter of US households have zero to negative net worth. It just takes one unlucky turn of the cards—an illness, an accident, a brush with the law—to put them under.
President Obama invokes “the knowledge economy,” putatively replete with well-paying jobs demanding advanced skills in all the high-tech arts that can make America great again. But what is the real economy of tomorrow for most Americans? The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reckons that by 2020 the overwhelming majority of jobs will still require only a high school diploma or less, and that nearly three-fourths of “job openings due to growth and replacement needs” over the next decade will pay a median wage of less than $35,000 a year, with nearly 30 percent paying a median of about $20,000 (in 2010 dollars).
Right now about 50 million Americans are working in: office and administrative support occupations (median wage of $31,250), sales and related occupations ($24,840), food preparation and serving occupations ($18,900). Not too much knowledge required. The growth jobs of tomorrow, according to the BLS: Childcare workers ($19,430), personal care aides ($19,730), home health aides ($20,610), janitors and cleaners ($22,210), teacher assistants ($23,220), nonconstruction laborers ($23,460), security guards ($23,900) and construction laborers ($29,730).
So what is the best anti-poverty program? Higher wages for the jobs that are out there. The current federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. Work a forty-hour week for $7.25 and you end up with $15,080 a year. This is just above the federal poverty line for an individual ($11,000) but well below the line for a family of four ($22,000). And it’s just a bit more than the manufacturer’s recommended retail price for the Ford Fiesta ($13,200), Ford’s cheapest car this year. In 1914 an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months’ pay.