“If someone can’t afford to buy food, they’re still a citizen and we’re still responsible to them,” city official Adriana Aranha in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, told me in 2000. What a concept–and one that had helped her to lift her Workers’ Party to victory in municipal elections seven years earlier.
Declaring healthy food a right of citizenship in Brazil’s fourth-largest city, the new administration drew together voices from labor, the church and citizen groups. Their innovations, coordinated by a new city office of food security, range from twenty-five fair-price produce stands supplied by local farmers to open-air restaurants serving 12,000 subsidized meals daily to city-sponsored radio broadcasts leading shoppers to the lowest-priced essentials.
These and many more city-led initiatives to end hunger consume only 1 percent of Belo’s budget, but they’re working. Hard evidence is the city’s infant death rate, a widely accepted measure of hunger, which fell an astonishing 56 percent over the first decade of these efforts. Belo’s approach has inspired multiple right-to-food initiatives nationwide as part of President Lula’s Zero Hunger Program.
Food was first declared a right in the UN’s 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and in 1993 at the Vienna Conference on Human Rights, citizen organizations, especially the FoodFirst Information and Action Network, began demanding specific standards for the right to food. By 2004 the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization Council had adopted “voluntary guidelines for the progressive realization of the right to adequate food,” with 187 governments signing on. Today, twenty-two countries have enshrined the right to food in their constitutions, either for all citizens or specifically for children.
Nonetheless, after a period of decline, the number of hungry people in the Global South rose from the mid-1990s over the following half-decade by almost 4 million a year.
It’s easy to understand why legally establishing the right to food is an appealing strategy. Since most would agree we have a right to live, a right to food–essential to life–doesn’t seem like a stretch. Maybe our evolutionary experience sets us up to agree. Except for the last few thousand of our roughly 200,000 years evolving, Homo sapiens lived in hunter-gatherer societies; and studying those remaining today, anthropologists find humans unique in our “pervasive sharing” of food, “especially among unrelated individuals,” writes Michael Gurven, a leading authority on hunter-gatherer food transfers. Except in times of extreme privation, when some eat, all eat. And the most productive hunters share the most. This relational ethic may have been carried even into feudal times, as suggested by the root meaning of “lord”–keeper of the loaf, connoting responsibility to the whole.
Another strength of a “rights” frame is that it carries the presumption of an eventual mechanism for enforcement. In Brazil the country’s National Rapporteur on the Human Rights to Food, Water and Rural Land, Flavio Valente, is already investigating what he calls “violations of the right to food.”