Hidden in a Census Bureau report on poverty released in late August is a factoid with significant political and social consequences. Poverty has moved to the suburbs. Or, more accurately, poverty has expanded to the suburbs. Today, 13.8 million poor Americans live in the suburbs–almost as many as the 14.6 million who live in central cities. The suburban poor represent 38.5 percent of the nation’s poor, compared with 40.6 percent of the total who live in central cities.
The headlines about the Census report focused on the increase in overall poverty–from 11.3 percent of all Americans in 2000, a twenty-six-year low, to 12.5 percent in 2003. In the last year alone, 1.3 million people fell below the poverty line, bringing the total to to 35.9 million.
This increase in poverty–along with a significant uptick in the number of Americans without health insurance (15.6 percent of the population)–is surely bad news for George W. Bush, who has been claiming that the economy is improving. The suburbanization of poverty also changes the demographics of elections in ways that are not yet determined but that could result in long-term Democratic growth.
Both the number and proportion of the poor living in suburbs has increased steadily. In 1970 only 20.5 percent of the nation’s poor lived in suburbs. By 2000, that had grown to 35.9 percent. And those trends have continued.
After World War II, moving to the suburbs was a key component of the American Dream of upward mobility. Indeed, the proportion of Americans who live in suburbs has grown steadily, from 23 percent in 1950 to 50 percent in 2000. The 2000 presidential election was the first with a majority of suburban voters. The 1950s TV image of suburbia–shows like Leave It to Beaver, My Three Sons and The Donna Reed Show–reflected reality: Suburbs were lily white and middle class. Men commuted to the city to work. Mothers stayed at home with the kids or worked part time.
The suburban landscape today has changed. More suburbanites now commute to other suburbs than to cities. A growing number of blacks, Latinos and Asians now live in suburbia, although suburbs are still racially segregated. Similarly, the poor are not randomly scattered across the suburban landscape; they are concentrated in inner-ring suburbs close to cities, as well as in the suburban fringe–former rural towns swept up by suburban sprawl.
Like the rest of America, the suburbs are becoming more and more polarized by income. During the past two decades, the number of “poor” suburbs–those whose per capita income is less than three-quarters of the metropolitan area’s–has spiraled upward. Most of their residents are not poor, but neither are they well-off. At the same time, the number of “rich” suburbs–those with per capita incomes above 125 percent of the region’s–has also increased. Rich suburbs use “snob zoning” to exclude poor households (and, increasingly, middle-class families) by zoning out apartments and requiring minimum-lot sizes for large, single-family houses. Meanwhile, the number of middle-class suburbs has declined.
For the poor, in particular, living in suburbia is a mixed bag at best. Research on a federal program that provides the inner-city poor with housing vouchers to move to middle-class suburbs shows that adults get better jobs and kids do better in school. But few of the suburban poor live in such affluent suburbs or attend good schools. Most live in troubled communities beset with problems once associated with big cities: crime, hunger, homelessness, inadequate schools and public services, and chronic fiscal crises.