But still today, some might see in a painting such as this the beginning of Courbet's decline--for many art historians believe (though no painter to whom I've ever spoken about it does) that a decline set in at some point. "In the 1860s tradition went dead in his hand," Clark mourned, not without satisfaction. For some, like Swiss scholar Oskar Bätschmann, the turning point might have come in 1857, when Courbet started showing hunting scenes at the Salon, following the notable success in this genre of the English painter Landseer. By offending public morals with a sensational but nearly uncollectible piece like Les Demoiselles des bords de la Seine (été) (The Young Ladies of the Banks of the Seine [Summer]; 1856-57)--showing a couple of hookers cooling off in the shade of a tree--but pleasing the crowd with inoffensive pictures of stags and hounds, he could have both notoriety and sales, but at the price that such Faustian bargains are always said to entail. Yet look beyond the "manifestos," the clamorous masterpieces of the first half of the 1850s, and not only the ones I've mentioned but others just as remarkable and familiar--Les Demoiselles de village (The Young Girls of the Village; 1852), say, or La Rencontre, ou Bonjour Monsieur Courbet (The Meeting, or Good Day, M. Courbet; 1854). Beyond these you'll find room after room of landscapes, nudes and, yes, animal and hunting pictures; and the notion that Courbet lost his soul by painting them is laughable. Take away everything Courbet painted through 1855 and you'd still be faced with one of the greatest artists of the nineteenth century--though, as he was earlier, an artist whose extreme unevenness was the price of his daring.
And he was still one of the most difficult artists too. Hard as it may be to see now, during the Second Empire under Napoleon III, when public commissions and state purchases were the measure of artistic success, cultivating a private market was part of Courbet's political intransigence, a way of maintaining his independence of a government he despised. But in the paintings Courbet produced for the market, the difficulty is much more internalized than in the contentious showpieces he made for the salons. Some of these were undoubtedly mere "potboilers," as Bätschmann calls them. But if anything, among Courbet's later pictures, it is the ones deliberately made to court controversy that were the potboilers, like the anticlerical satire Le Retour de la conférence (The Return From the Conference; 1863)--a painting that no longer survives but appears to have been an aggrandized cartoon of the sort that perhaps Goya could have turned into something haunting and poignant, lending the idiocy of the priesthood a sort of metaphysical intensity. Courbet's subtlety was not of this sort.
Animalier painting may have been good business, but Courbet was born to paint animals, and not just because he was an avid huntsman or even because it enabled him to avoid some of the anatomical eccentricities that always threatened to undermine his more ambitious figure paintings (and that were sometimes the making of them)--at least when the figures had to do much more than stand around. Dominique de Font-Réaulx is not wrong in saying that Courbet's hunting scenes "form the strangest as well as the most original part of his output." There is a brute energy to Courbet's engagement with the act of painting, a sense of conflict and a relish in it that finds its truest expression in his paintings of the hunt, which allowed him to depict a full range of emotion, both human and animal, from fear, excitement, exhaustion and agony to the pensiveness of a breather after the chase. This last is the subject of a curiously melancholy picture, La Curée, chasse au chevreuil dans les forêts du Grand Jura (The Quarry, a Deer Hunt in the Forests of the Grand Jura; 1856), which has something of the enigmatic quality of, dare I say, Giorgione's Tempest; it has been remarked of Courbet's painting that it contains a "suggestion of allegory" but one that cannot be read, and this is part of what it shares with the Venetian masterpiece. The artist stands at the center of his composition, leaning back against a tree, lost in thought, with an elusive, perhaps sardonic smile playing across his face. But he is also lost in the shadow of the tree, and it's almost as if the boy who blows idly on a horn, the two hounds that seem ready for a face-off, and the hanging carcass of a buck whose face is the thing that comes closest to addressing the viewer in this painting--yet without any trace of anthropomorphizing--were nothing but so many apparitions in a dream he's having.
In 1871 Courbet's involvement in politics reached its zenith with his participation in the Paris Commune--a series of events that barely register in his art, for the simple reason that he had more urgent things to do than paint during those dramatic months. But the fall of the commune led to a brief imprisonment (retrospectively depicted in Portrait de l'artiste à Sainte-Pélagie [1872-73], in which his wistful gaze out the barred window oddly echoes his expression in La Curée, fifteen years earlier) and in 1873 to an unhappy, mostly unproductive exile in Switzerland that lasted until his death in 1877. Shortly before leaving France, in 1872, Courbet made two versions of an almost agonized painting of a trout caught on a hook, paintings that are the ne plus ultra of the identification with the expiring animal that one glimpses in La Curée. This identification is just another instance of what seems to have been a special fascination with some instinctive or autonomic animal essence of existence that emerges in its purest form where consciousness slips away, as in sleep or dying, and that can be seen from his recurrent paintings of people asleep or unconscious--mostly women but also himself, as in the early self-portrait, later revised, known as L'Homme blessé (The Wounded Man; 1844-54). For Courbet, it seems, this moment of expiration is not only that of ultimate weakness or loss; there also remains an intense life there, but coiled up in itself. Even the distractedness registered by so many of the faces in Un Enterrement reflects something like this waning of consciousness that so fascinated him.
Courbet's landscapes, too, more surprisingly, can contain traces of this inwardly turned life--but again, and this is what makes the fact so strange, without any sign of anthropomorphization or idealization. It is impossible to generalize about this part of Courbet's production, for while he limited himself for the most part to scenes of his native region, the Franche-Comté, he painted a greater variety of landscape motifs, and painted them in a greater variety of ways, than any of his immediate precursors or successors. In a more fruitfully indirect way than in his early self-portraits, these landscapes amount to an insistence on the issue of the artist's identity, for they reassert the image of the artist that paintings like Un Enterrement had helped him establish, that of the stubborn provincial who'd conquered Paris without being corrupted by it, a man alert to every topographical and social detail of his home territory. The idea of landscape painting clearly meant much to Courbet, for in great summation of his early maturity, L'Atelier du peintre, allégorie réelle determinant une phase de sept années de ma vie artistique (The Painter's Studio: A Real Allegory Summing Up a Seven-Year Phase of My Artistic Life; 1855)--unfortunately still at home in the Musée d'Orsay rather than at the Met--is precisely a landscape he shows himself painting. Yet there is a certain type of landscape painting that seems most particularly Courbet's own: it is immersive--there is no visible horizon, so that the viewer feels contained within the terrain (indeed, almost pressed into it) rather than able to observe it at a distance--and synecdochical. Above all, it is a landscape in which the most powerful energy comes from something unseen, shrouded in darkness--not unlike the hidden life of the body that's sometimes manifested in his figure paintings. Works like the various versions of La Source de la Loue (The Source of the Loue), painted in 1864, or Le Puits-Noir, around 1860-65, have a peculiar way of feeling at once absolutely present and completely withdrawn, immediately at hand and yet fugitive and ungraspable. They are densely material, tactile, up-front and in your face--but they are also built around massively absorptive black holes that seem to contain infinite distance.
Source, origin: the very title of these paintings about the place where water passes from its latency within the earth to visibility recalls that of what is now Courbet's most notorious painting--though then nearly unknown. L'Origine du monde (The Origin of the World; 1866) is another immersive and synecdochical painting. It is a female nude but one in which, as Flaubert's friend the writer and photographer Maxime du Camp coyly described it, "by some inconceivable forgetfulness, the artist, who copied his model from nature, had neglected to represent the feet, the legs, the thighs, the stomach, the hips, the chest, the hands, the arms, the shoulders, the neck, and the head." Commissioned by a private collector, this is a work that never could have been exhibited in its time and was not seen in public until it was shown at the Brooklyn Museum in 1988, more than 120 years after its making--another sign of the painter's having sold his soul to commerce, some might say. If so, the price was well worth it.
Call it a piece of glorified pornography--but if technique can be transcendent, then the common or garden-variety crotch shot is well and truly glorified in this painting, in which the rendering of human flesh is of a refinement that Edmond de Goncourt was right in comparing to Correggio's. The pornographic photos of the day, exhibited alongside the painting to contextualize it, serve above all to highlight the vast gulf that separates Courbet's art from its ostensible analogues or sources (and the same is true of the nineteenth-century topographic photographs likewise juxtaposed against his landscapes). To a great extent, the assimilation into painting of a photographic way of seeing would have to wait for Courbet's successor, Manet, to begin in earnest. In any case, that this most extreme example of what would later be called the objectification of women by the male gaze is strangely tied to the way Courbet viewed his native landscape is to some extent confirmed by the title of the painting that was commissioned as a discreet cover-up for L'Origine by the last private owner, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan: following the same general contours as Courbet's painting but in a much-abstracted manner, André Masson's masking panel was titled Terre érotique (Erotic Earth; 1955).
To notice the connection between L'Origine du monde and La Source de la Loue is not to forget the vast difference between them, which is not only a difference in subject but above all a difference in manner of painting. The immense if prurient tenderness of the one, its evocation of a surpassing softness, could hardly be mistaken for the vigorous, sometimes raw paint-handling of the other. This is the most remarkable thing about Courbet: he was almost a painter without a style; he had formulas, to be sure, but he never had one formula. There were many painters in him, though he was rarely, after those first clumsy efforts, a pasticheur. Tradition came alive under his hand.